How is Anxiety related to stress? Tips to Deal With Stress and Anxiety

How is Anxiety related to stress? Tips to Deal With Stress and Anxiety
Written By: Clinical Psychologist
Reviewed By: Counselling Psychologist
MA Psychology Pennsylvania State University, USA
Last Updated: 02-04-2024

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The Relationship Between Anxiety & Stress

Everybody has dealt with stress and knows what it s like to feel nervous. Human reactions to stress and anxiety can be beneficial or detrimental depending on the situation. Although stress and anxiety are now often used synonymously in our culture, their initial connotations were quite different. 

Stress was the term used to describe the body s response to a perceived or actual threat. The "fight-or-flight" response is the most well-known and easily identifiable stress response, having been a part of human history since prehistoric times. This response gave our early ancestors the capacity to repel cff predators and make a swift escape when needed. It will be covered in more detail later. In this instance, stress led to an increase in power, vitality, and speed.

Traditionally, the word "anxiety" has been used to characterize an emotional state without making any mention of the corresponding bodily reactions. The comprehension and awareness of amdety as an emotion in society increased as a result of Freud s work. His notion of anxiety as an emotion that might be connected to unconscious ideas and feelings was part of his somewhat complicated theory of anxiety.

Anxiety and stress are typically associated with negative emotions. These emotions are undoubtedly not always negative, though. The source of dissatisfaction that comes from worry can push us to grow and develop in positive ways, and the energy that comes from stress can be helpful and help us maximize our performance in many areas.

What s the difference between Stress and Anxiety?

You virtually always experience stress and worry in your body, even though they aren t usually brought on by an obvious or straightforward incident or circumstance. It is obvious that stress and anxiety have a physiological component. Because the "fight or flight" response is ingrained in our bodies, we experience this bodily aspect of stress.

What role does this mechanism play? It s likely that you have personally encountered it. When you are extremely afraid or intimidated, you react without thinking. Consider the emotions you experience following a near-fatal car accident or other near-death experience. You feel alert, motivated, and prepared to go. You become more alert and prepared for action overall when your heartbeat quickens, your breathing quickens, your blood pressure rises, your muscles strain, and your senses sharpen. When a swift or forceful physical action is needed, these reactions can be quite useful. It s likely that you have read or heard tales of someone overcoming great obstacles, like lifting a car, in an emergency. Energy released during the "fight and flight" response is the source of this additional strength.

Any stressful event or feeling of threat triggers the same kinds of internal reactions. Though the intensity may not be as high, the same internal effects apply, such as elevated respiration and pulse rate. 

You most likely experience some of these feelings, for instance, when you have to take a really important examination or when you have to perform in front of a big crowd. Your body may experience a variation of this excitation reaction even if you are simply feeling worried for no apparent cause.

How Stress Triggers Anxiety?

Why is it vital to "manage stress" when we know that stress and anxiety can promote growth and that our evolutionary background includes a "fight and flight" response that has helped us survive. There are two main ways to respond to this query.

First, there s the fact that the "fight or flight" response is largely out of date. In today s world, we really don t need to be able to fight and run too much. Instead, we are typically required to handle a variety of stressful—but non-life-threatening—situations without turning to physical exercise. Therefore, our inclination to prepare ourselves for action may lead to an unhealthy level of physical preparedness. The fact that humans have an innate feedback system that amplifies our stimulation in the absence of any physical activity exacerbates this issue.

Second, there is strong evidence that excessive stress can lead to a wide range of health and psychological issues. This is a tough one to define as extreme stress. It is up to each individual to define what constitutes excessive stress for themselves. Individuals differ greatly in how they handle stressful situations and deal with life s occurrences.  As the old saying goes, "One person s poison is another person s pleasure."

One cannot be assured that stress genuinely causes anything because of this great variability. On the other hand, over time, excessive stress is most likely detrimental. The most terrifying outcome of extreme stress is potentially demise. Stress seems to be linked to serious illnesses like cancer, heart problems, rheumatoid arthritis, and respiratory conditions. This merely indicates that stress may have some influence; it does not imply that stress is the main factor.

Performance stress and anxiety

One cannot be assured that stress genuinely causes anything because of this great variability. On the other hand, over time, excessive stress is most likely detrimental. The most terrifying outcome of extreme stress is potentially demise. Stress seems to be linked to serious illnesses like cancer, heart problems, rheumatoid arthritis, and respiratory conditions. This merely indicates that stress may have some influence; it does not imply that stress is the main factor.

However, stress counselling online can also be beneficial and increase your ability. The extra vigor and energy you experience prior to a challenging performance can be quite helpful. The energy and alertness can only become negative reactions—such as shakiness, excessive tension, or difficulty thinking clearly—when the stress gets too great. Put another way, you experience negative repercussions when your body triggers your "fight or flight" response too often.

It s simple to recognize the acute stress you experience when you re responding to something tangible. However, what about the stress that arises from routine interactions? What about the stress you appear to be carrying around and that seems to intensify during the day? We refer to this type of stress as accumulative stress. While stress isn t actually something you carry around in a specific location within your body, it does seem to collect in our bodies and thoughts since stressful situations tend to make us more prone to becoming overstressed.

The Intertwined Paths: How Stress Fuels Anxiety

Stress and anxiety have a bidirectional relationship. Here s how they influence each other:

  • Stress Triggers Anxiety: When under stress, the body releases hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones can exacerbate anxiety symptoms like rapid heart rate, muscle tension, and difficulty concentrating.
  • Anxiety Worsens Stress: Chronic anxiety can deplete your body s resources, making it harder to cope with even minor stressors. This creates a vicious cycle, where anxiety fuels stress, and vice versa.

Biological Roots: The Neurohormonal Connection

The stress and anxiety response is orchestrated by a complex interplay between the nervous system and the endocrine system:

  • The Nervous System: The sympathetic nervous system activates the fight-or-flight response during stress. This triggers the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, which further heightens anxiety.
  • The Endocrine System: The hypothalamus, a part of the brain, stimulates the adrenal glands to release stress hormones like cortisol. Chronically elevated cortisol levels can lead to anxiety disorders.
  • Brain Regions Involved: Specific brain regions, including the amygdala (fear processing) and the hippocampus (memory), are also implicated in the stress-anxiety loop.
  • The HPA Axis: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a complex system that regulates stress response. Chronic stress can lead to an overactive HPA axis, resulting in elevated cortisol levels which can contribute to anxiety
  • The Amygdala: This part of the brain is responsible for processing emotions, particularly fear and threat. Stress can heighten activity in the amygdala, making us more prone to anxiety.
  • The Neurotransmitters: Stress and anxiety influence neurotransmitters like GABA and glutamate, which regulate mood and emotions. An imbalance in these chemicals can contribute to anxious feelings.

Managing Stress & Anxiety

Stress Journal: Maintaining a daily stress journal is one of the best strategies to gain greater understanding about your personal stress process and effective stress management techniques. It s crucial to take the time to periodically reflect on your life, especially on how you handle stress. It will benefit you greatly. Initially, it will heighten your consciousness regarding the emotions, perspectives, and actions associated with your encounters with stress. This alone might assist you in reducing some of your tension. Behavioral psychology research has demonstrated that even keeping note of problematic conduct can frequently aid in reducing its frequency.

Maintaining a Journal will compel you to pay attention to stress and how it affects your life. It will, in a sense, assist in focusing your energies on progress. Maintaining a journal might also assist you in recalling and recognizing stress-related patterns in your life. It will most likely assist you in highlighting the individuals and circumstances that are stressful as well as those that promote relaxation and ease. 

Deep Breathing: Numerous books have been written exclusively about breathing, and practices such as yoga require deep training in various types of breathing. To make things very simple, we will focus on two key components of deep breathing: consistent deep breathing with the diaphragm and a recurring, calming, stress-relieving sigh.

Though it may seem straightforward, taking deep breaths is a crucial relaxing method. Too many of us breathe incorrectly. It s a common lesson that we should thrust our chests out and pull our stomachs in. While this may result in a posture that looks good, it frequently leads to shallow chest breathing as opposed to deep diaphragmatic breathing. One effective way to alleviate stress is to breathe deeply. Your heart can beat more slowly and you will take in more oxygen when you breathe deeply. This breathing pattern differs significantly from the shallow breaths and elevated heart rate that are typical in stressful conditions. Tension and deep breathing are in a way incompatible. way that the strain brought on by rapid, shallow breathing is naturally offset when you breathe deeply.

The stress-relieving sigh is another deep breathing technique that is incredibly calming. This may come naturally to you in stressful situations. It entails taking a deep breath, holding it for a short while, and then gently letting it out. Body tension can be greatly reduced with the help of this type of revitalizing and calming sigh. Many attendees of stress management seminars have discovered that creating a trigger to remind them to regularly take deep, soothing breaths during their typical workday is a helpful technique.shallowly and quickly breathing.

Visualization: The visualization exercise is a great way to start a broad conversation about nature and its benefits for relaxation. Most likely, your soothing moments took place in a natural environment, far from everything else. Everybody seems to be able to feel refreshed, at ease, and at ease when they are in an area that is full of natural beauty and the peaceful seclusion that comes from being far from most other people. A week spent in the backcountry or a little trip along a nature trail can both provide several benefits from spending time apart from the modern world.

When we are in awe of the grandeur of a century-old tree or the beauty of a stream, time seems to stop. We are able to temporarily forget about our numerous deadlines and responsibilities and come to understand their relative significance in light of the size, complexity, and beauty of nature.

Plan some outings if you don t frequently enjoy going to the beach, mountains, or woods. Look for nearby locations (such as parks or hiking trails) where you may go without doing much advance planning or preparation. Even if you are a social butterfly by nature, consider going for a solo walk. While it s acceptable to occasionally reflect on your objectives and address problems, don t make it your primary focus. Simply give yourself permission to be there, to take in and appreciate your surroundings. Keeping a stress notebook and journaling your thoughts and feelings could be one approach to intensify the experience. Better still, locate a quiet place to write in your journal and bring it along.

      FAQs:

How can I tell if my stress or anxiety is a problem?
While stress and anxiety are normal, they can become problematic if they significantly impact your daily life. Here s a quick way to check: Is your stress or worry lasting for weeks at a time and interfering with work, relationships, or even basic tasks? Are there physical symptoms like trouble sleeping or constant headaches? If so, it might be time to seek professional help.  Remember, you don t have to go through this alone!

Are there any physical symptoms of stress and anxiety?
Yes, stress and anxiety can manifest in many physical ways.  Common symptoms include headaches, muscle tension, fatigue, sleep problems, stomachaches, and changes in appetite. You might also experience rapid heart rate, sweating, or difficulty breathing. If you re frequently experiencing these issues, it could be a sign of chronic stress or anxiety, and it s a good idea to talk to a doctor or therapist.

What are some healthy ways to cope with stress and anxiety?
Feeling stressed or anxious? Here are some healthy ways to manage it:

Mind your body: Eat nutritious meals, exercise regularly, and get enough sleep. These habits build resilience against stress.
Relaxation techniques: Deep breathing, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation can all help calm your mind and body.
Social connection: Talk to a trusted friend, family member, or therapist. Social support is a great buffer against stress.
Healthy habits: Limit alcohol, caffeine, and sugary drinks, as these can worsen anxiety.
Do what you enjoy: Make time for hobbies and activities that bring you joy and relaxation.

How can you better manage stress and feelings related to anxiety?
Feeling stressed or anxious? Here are some quick tips for you! First, identify your stressors and try to avoid them or manage them better. Exercise is a great stress reliever, so get moving! Relaxation techniques like deep breathing and meditation can also help calm your mind and body. Don t forget the power of a good night s sleep and a healthy diet to manage stress. If you re feeling overwhelmed, reach out to a trusted friend, family member, or therapist for support. Remember, you re not alone!


 

Reference

  • Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • American Psychological Association. (2019). Stress and Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/stress-anxiety
  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2021). Anxiety Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml
  • Kessler, R. C., et al. (2012). The association between lifetime anxiety disorder and age-related macular degeneration in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 42(5), 1015-1024.
  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2020). Anxiety Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anxiety/symptoms-causes/syc-20350961
  • Coping with Stress and Anxiety During the COVID-19 Pandemic. (2020). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/managing-stress-anxiety.html
  • Barlow, D. H. (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55(11), 1247-1263.
  • Cohen, S., & Janicki-Deverts, D. (2012). Who s stressed? Distributions of psychological stress in the United States in probability samples from 1983, 2006, and 2009. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(6), 1320-1334.
  • Anxiety and Depression Association of America. (2020). Stress. Retrieved from https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/stress
  • Hoge, E. A., et al. (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder as a risk factor for suicidal ideation in Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(1), 77-82.
  • Mind. (2021). How to manage stress. Retrieved from https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/tips-for-everyday-living/stress/#.Yg9F_ej0mUk
  • Harvard Health Publishing. (2021). 6 ways to stop stress in its tracks. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/6-ways-to-stop-stress-in-its-tracks

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